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K- Factor

The K-Factor in sheet metal working is the ratio of the neutral axis to the material thickness.  When metal is bent the top section is going to undergo compression and the bottom section will be stretched.  The line where the transition from compression to stretching occurs is called the neutral axis.  The location of the neutral axis varies and is based on the material’s physical properties and its thickness.  The K-Factor is the ratio of the Neutral Axis’ Offset (t) and the Material Thickness (MT).


K factor is a ratio between the distances from the neutral bend line to the inside bends radius and the material thickness. K factor uses the formula K factor = δ/T. Y factor uses the formula Y factor = K factor * (Π/2). The default value for Y factor is 0.50. Developed length of material and Y factor and K factor.

When the sheet metal is put through the process of bending the metal around the bend is deformed and stretched. As this happens you gain a small amount of total length in your part. … The Bend Allowance is defined as the material you will add to the actual leg lengths of the part in order to develop a flat pattern.

Material thickness k-factor

Setback (sheet Metal Layout) A measurement used in sheet metal layout. Setback is the distance the jaws of a brake must be set back from the mold line to form a bend. Setback for a 90� bend is equal to the inside radius of the bend, plus the thickness of the metal being bent.

k-factor condition



credit by Praveen Rathore

                                                                                                                                                                            Design Engineer (ME)

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