FOUNDATION AND ITS TYPE
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FOUNDATION AND ITS TYPE

FOUNDATION

Foundation is the lowest portion of a structure which transmits the load into the supporting soil. The main purpose of the foundation is to distribute the total weight of the superstructure over a large area of soil.

TYPES OF FOUNDATION

  1. SHALLOW FOUNDATION
  2. DEEP FOUNDATION

SHALLOW FOUNDATION

A shallow foundation is a type of foundation in which the foundation is situated instantly below the lowest part of a structure. The depth of the foundation is equal or less than its width.SHALLOW FOUNDATION

 

DEEP FOUNDATION

A deep foundation is a type of foundation in which the foundation is placed at a deeper depth below the ground level. the depth of foundation is much greater than its width.DEEP FOUNDATION

 

FOOTING

The footing is one of the most important parts of a structure which transfers loads of a structure to the underlying soil. the selection of footing depends on the following factors.

  1. The depth of the soil at which safe bearing strength exists.
  2. The type and condition of the soil.
  3. The type of superstructure.

TYPES OF FOOTINGS

  1. WALL FOOTING/STRIP FOOTING
  2. SLOPED FOOTINGS
  3. SPREAD FOOTINGS
  4. MAT OR RAFT FOUNDATION
  5. ISOLATED FOOTINGS
  6. STRAPPED FOOTING
  7. STEPPED FOOTINGS
  8. PILE FOUNDATION
  9. COMBINED FOOTINGS 

STRIP FOOTING

A strip footing is a component of shallow foundation which distributes the weight of a load bearing wall across the area of the ground.it is also known as wall footings.STRIP FOOTING

 

SPREAD FOOTINGS

A spread is given the base of the foundation so that the load of the structure is distributed on a wide area of the soil in such a way that the safe bearing capacity of the soil is not exceeded.SPREAD FOOTINGS

 

ISOLATED FOOTINGS

It is a square, circular or individually rectangular slab of uniform thickness, provided under each column. ISOLATED FOOTINGS

 

STEPPED FOOTINGS

The main purpose using stepped footing is to keep the metal columns away from direct contact with soil to save them from corrosive effect .they are used to carry the load of metal columns and transmit this load to the below ground.STEPPED FOOTINGS

 

COMBINED FOOTINGS

When two or more columns are supported by a footing it is called combined footing. This footing may be of rectangular or trapezoidal in plan.

The combined footing is provided under the following situations.

  1. When columns are close to each other and their individual footings
  2. Soil having a low bearing capacity and requires more area under the individual footing.
  3. The column end is situated near the property line and the footing cannot be extended.COMBINED FOOTINGS

 

STRAPPED FOOTING

In this type of footing, the outer and inner column is connected by a strap beam, does not transfer any load to the soil.STRAPPED FOOTING

 

RAFT FOUNDATION

This foundation covers the entire area under the structure. this foundation has only RCC slab covering the whole area or slab and beam together. raft foundation is adopted when heavy structures are to be constructed on soft made –up ground or marshy sites with uncertain behavior .raft foundation is also known as mat foundation.RAFT FOUNDATION

SLOPED FOOTINGS

The strapped footings having the sloping top or side faces are known as sloped footings. This type of footing is useful in the construction of formwork.SLOPED FOOTINGS

 

PILE FOUNDATION

A pile foundation is a long cylinder of strong materials such as concrete that is pushed into the ground to act as a steady support for structures built on top of it.PILE FOUNDATION

PILE FOUNDATIONS ARE USED IN THE FOLLOWING SITUATIONS.

  1. When there is a layer of weak soil at the surface. This layer cannot support the weight of the building, so loads of the building have to bypass this layer and be transferred to the layer of stronger soil or rock that is below the weak layer.
  2. When a building has very heavy, concentrated loads, such as in a high rise structure, bridge, or water tank.

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